Main Article Content

Elena Kubovičová
Andrej Baláži
Andrea Svoradová
Jakub Vozaf
Alexander Makarevich
Peter Chrenek


Fertility is a very complex biological function that depends on several properties of spermatozoa. Male fertility may be defined as the ability of a sperm cell to fertilize an oocyte and support development to produce viable offspring. When insemination doses from outstanding rams are intended to long-term storage in the gene bank, it is necessary to determine their sperm quality prior to cryopreservation. The aim of our study was to check the quality of fresh semen collected from rams of the three national sheep breeds: Native Wallachian (NW), Improved Wallachian (IW) and Slovak Dairy Sheep (SDS). We evaluated basic parameters of spermatozoa, such as sperm concentration, motility and morphology (sperm abnormalites) using CASA assay. No significant differences in the studied parameters among the breeds were recorded. Our results indicate that rams of three national breeds are characterized by a proper sperm quality for storage in the gene bank. The evaluation of the concentration, motility and morphology of sperm could be used at selection of best insemination doses for cryopreservation.

Article Details



Adeniji, D. A., Oyeyemi, M. O. & Olughemi, J. R. (2010). Sperm morphological characteristic and mating behaviour of Proviron treated West African Dwarf bucks with testicular degeneration. International Journal of Morphology, 28(2), 623−636. v28n2/art46.pdf.

Azawi, O.I. & Ismaeel, M.A. (2012). Effects of seasons on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47(3), 403−406. https://doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2011.01888.x

Aziz, N., Saleh, R. A., Sharma, R. K., Lewis-Jones, I., Esfandiari, N., Thomas, A. J., Jr. & Agarwal, A. (2004). Novel association between sperm reactive oxygen species production, sperm morphological defects, and the sperm deformity index. Fertility and Sterility, 81, 349−354. https:// doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2003.06.026

Aziz, N., Said, T., Paasch, U. & Agarwal, A. (2007). The relationship between human sperm apoptosis, morphology and the sperm deformity index. Human Reproduction, 22, 1413−1419. https://doi: 10.1093/humrep/dem016

Chrenek, P., Makarevič, A. V., Kubovičová, E., Bulla, J. & Supuka P. (2019). Slovak national animal breeds. SPU in Nitra, 99 p., ISBN 978-80-552-1982-0

Fernandez, M., Giráldez, F. J., Frutos, P., Lavı́n, P. & Mantecon, A. R. (2004). Effect of undegradable protein supply on testicular size, spermiogram parameters and sexual behavior of mature Assaf rams. Theriogenology, 62(1-2), 299−310. 2003.10.003

Fernandes, M., Hernández, P. R., Simões, J. & Barbas, J. P. (2021). Effects of tree semen extenders, breeding season month and Freezing-thawing cycle on spermatozoa preservation of portuguese Merino sheep. Animals, 11, 2619.

Holt, W. V. & Lloyd, R. E. (2010). Sperm storage in the vertebrate female reproductive tract: How does it work so well? Theriogenology, 73, 713−722.

Joshi, A., Bag, S., Naqui, S. M. K., Sharma, R. C., Rawatt, P. M. & Mital, J. P. (2001). Effect of short-term and long-term preservation on motion characteristics of Carole ram spermatozoa: A prolific microsheep breed of India. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 14, 1527−1533.

Juyena, N. S. & Stelletta, C. (2012). Seminal plasma: an essential attribute to spermatozoa. Journal of Andrology, 33(4), 536−551. https://doi: 10.2164/jandrol.110.012583. Epub 2011 Oct 20. PMID: 22016346.

Kulíková, B., Baláži, A., Tóthova, J., Jurčík, R., Huba, J. & Chrenek, P. (2018). Dilution factors affects the ability of ram sperm to survive cryopreservation: short communication. Slovak Journal of Animal Sciences, 51(1), 41−44.

Kunavongkrit, A., Suriyasomboon, A., Lundeheim, N., Heard, T. W. & Einarsson, S. (2005). Management and sperm production of boars under differing environmental conditions. Theriogenology, 15, 63(2), 657−667. https://doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.09.039. PMID: 15626423.

Malama, E., Bollwein, H., Taitzoglou, I. A., Theodosiou, T., Boscos, C. M. & Kiossis, E. (2013). Chromatin integrity of ram spermatozoa. Relationships to annual fluctuations of scrotal surface temperature and temperature-humidity index. Theriogenology, 80(5), 533−541. https://doi: 10.1016/ j.theriogenology.2013.05.019

Moghadam, G. H., Pourseif, S. & Rafat, S. A. (2012). Seasonal variation in semen quantity and quality traits of Iranian ceossbred rams. Slovak Journal of Animal Sciences, 45 (3), 67−75.

Ngcobo, J. N., Nephawe, K. A., Maquehashu, A. & Nedambale, T. L. (2020). Seasonal variations in semen parameters of Zulu rams preserved at 10 °C for 72 h during breeding and non-breeding season. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 15(3), 226−239. https://doi: 10.3844/ ajavsp.2020.226.239

Partyka, A., Łukaszewicz, E. & Niżański, W. (2012). Effect of cryopreservation on sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in fowl semen. Theriogenology, 77(8), 1497−1504. https://doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.11.006. Epub 2012 Jan 5. PMID: 22225691.

De Paz, P., Mata-Campuzano, M., Tizado, E. J., Alvarez, M., Alvarez-Rodriguez, M., Herraez, P. & Anel, L. (2011). The relationship between ram sperm head morphometry and fertility depends on the procedures of acquisition and analysis used. Theriogenology, 76, 1313−1325.

Peňa, F. J., Saravia, F., Johannisson, A., Walgren, M. & Rodríguez-Martínez, H. (2005). A new and simple method to evaluate early membrane changes in frozen–thawed boar spermatozoa. International Journal of Andrology, 28(2), 107−114. 00512.x

Rengan, A. K., Agarwal, A., van der Linde, M. & du Plessis, S. S. (2012). An investigation of excess residual cytoplasm in human spermatozoa and its distinction from the cytoplasmic droplet. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 10, 92.

Sánchez-Pozo, M. C., Mendiola, J., Serrano, M., Mozas, J., Björndahl, L., Menkveld, R. S., Lewis, S. E. M., Mortimer, D., Jørgensen, N., Barratt, C. R. L., Fernández, M. F. & Castilla, J. A. (2013). Proposal of guidelines for the appraisal of semen quality studies (SEMQUA). Human Reproduction, 28(1), 10−21. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/des355.

Talebi, J., Souria, M., Moghaddam, A., Karimi, I. & Mirmahmoodi, M. (2009). Characteristics and seasonal variation in the semen of Markhoz bucks in western Iran. Small Ruminant Research, 85, 18−22. 2009.06017

Verstegen, J., Iguer-Ouada, M. & Onclin, K. (2002). Computer assisted semen analyzers in andrology research and veterinary practice. Theriogenology, 57(1), 149−179. https://doi: 10.1016/ s0093-691x (01)00664-1

Xu, H., Yuan, S. Q., Zheng, Z. H. & Yan, W. (2013). The cytoplasmic droplet may be indicative of sperm motility and normal spermiogenesis. Asian Journal of Andrology, 15(6), 799−805.

Zaher, H. A., Alawaash, S. A. & Swelum, A. A. (2020). Effects of season and breed on the reproductive performance of sheep. Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology, 35(2), 149−154.

Zorn, B., Golob, B., Ihan, A., Kopitar, A. & Kolbezen, M. (2012). Apoptotic sperm biomarkers and their correlation with conventional sperm parameters and male fertility potential. Reproduction Medicine, 29, 357−364. https://doi: 10.1007/s10815-012-9718-x

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>