MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF BEGAIT COWS KEPT IN TWO DIFFERENT FARMING SYSTEMS AT WESTERN ZONE OF TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA

Main Article Content

Widya Pintaka Bayu PUTRA
Teweldemedhn MEKONNEN

Abstract

Breed characterization in the livestock is important to obtain the breed standard of livestock for selection program. This research was aimed to characterize the Begait cows (Bos indicus) reared in two different farming systems (on-farm and ranch) in Ethiopia using 15 body measurements. A total of 344 adult Begait cows kept in on-farm (n = 237) and ranch (n = 107) systems were involved in this study. The principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to describe the morphostucture of the animal study. Thus, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) was performed to classify the animals from two different farming systems. The PCA and CDA analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0 computer program. The results revealed three principal components (PC's) in animals reared in on-farm system, and four PC's were found in animals reared in the ranch system. Thus, the PCA in this study able to explain the morphostructure of cows about 52.01 % (on-farm) and 63.26 % (ranch). Morever, seven body measurements were detected as the discriminant variables for Begait cows with canonical correlation (rc ) of 0.57 (moderate). In addition, the discriminant analysis of body measurements able to classify Begait cows about 77.6 % (on-farm) and 82.2 % (ranch system) into their original farming system. It can be concluded that the morphostructure of Begait cows appears to be affected by the differences in management systems, indicating their usefulness for breeding programs in the future.

Keywords
  • Begait cows
  • Body measurements
  • canonical discriminant analysis.
  • farming systems
  • principal component analysis
  • Article Details

    Section
    Articles
    Author Biography

    Teweldemedhn MEKONNEN, Tigray Agricultural Research Institute − Humera Begait Animals Research Center, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Tigray Agricultural Research Institute - Humera Begait Animals Research Center, Tigray, Ethiopia

    References

    Assefa, A. & Hallu, A. (2018). Ethiopian indigenous cattle breed's diversity, distribution, purpose of keeping, and their potential threats. Journal of Bio Innovation, 7(5), 770–789.

    Boujenane, I. (2014). Multivariate characterisation of Oulmes-Zaer and Tidili cattle using the morphological traits. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(2), 293–299.

    DAGRIS. (2006). Domestic Animal Genetic Resource Information System (DAGRIS). International Livestock Institute. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Edouard, N. K., Lacine, B. K., Cyrille, K. N., Etienne, L. N., Guiguigbaza-Kossigan, D. & Yapi-Gnaore, C. V. (2018). Multivariate anaysis for morphological characteristics of N'dama cattle breed in two agro-ecological zones of Cote d'Ivoire. European Scientific Journal, 14(3), 602–621. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2018.v14n3p602.

    Gebreyohanes, M. F. (2015). Production system and pheno-typic characterization of Begait cattle, and effects of suplementation with concentrate feeds on milk yield and composition of Begait cows in Humera ranch. Western Tigray, Ethiopia. Ph.D Thesis. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

    Gebru, T., Yigrem, S. & Banerjee, S. (2017). Some morphometrical, production and reproduction traits of Begait cattle reared in Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Wayamba Journal of Animal Science, 9, 1571–1585.

    Grema, M., Traore, A., Issa, M., Hamani, M., Abdou, M., Fernandez, I., Soudre, A., Alvarez I., Sanou, M., Tamboura, H. H., Alhassane, Y. & Goyache, F. (2017). Morphological assessement of Niger Kuri cattle using multivariate methods. South African Journal of Animal Science, 47(4), 505–515. https://doi.org/ 10.4314/sajas/v47i4.9.

    Heryani, L. G. S. S., Susari, N. N. W. & Gunawan, I. W. N. F. (2018). Principals components variables of Taro white cattle morphometrics based on body measurements. Buletin Veteriner Udayana, 10(1), 93–99. https://doi.org/ 10.24843/bulvet.2018.v10.i01.p15.

    FAO. (2012). Phenotypic Characterisation of Animal Genetic Resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 11. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy.

    Merga, T. N. & Tadesse, Y. (2020) Morphological variations of Arsi, Kerayu and their crossbred cattle under current climate change in Mid Rift Valley of Oromia, Ethiopia. Academic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 8(6), 630–648. https://doi.org/10.14662/ARJASR2020.440.

    Mezgebe, G., Gizaw, S. & Urge, M. (2018). Growth, reproductive, and productive performance of Begait cattle under different herd management systems in northern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 50(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1560-4.

    Pares-Casanova, P. M. & Mwaanga, E. S. (2013). Factor analysis of biometric traits of Tonga cattle for body conformation characterization. Global Journal of Multidisciplinary Applied Science, 1(2), 41–46.

    Pares-Casanova, P. M., Sinfreu, I. & Villalba, D. (2013). Application of verimax rotated principal component analysis in quantifying some zoometrical traits of a relic cow. Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, 53(1), 7–10. https://doi.org/ 10.14405/kjvr.2013.53.1.007.

    Pundir, R. K., Singh, P. K. & Sadama, D. K. (2015). Multivariate analysis of morphometric traits of three different indigenous cattle populations from North East state of India. Journal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, 20(2), 79–86. https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v.2012.1162.

    Pundir, R. K., Singh, P. K., Singh, K. P. & Dangi, P. S. (2011). Factor analysis of biometric traits of Kankrej cows to explain body conformation. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 24(4), 449–456.

    Putra, W. P. B., Said, S. & Johar, A. (2020a). Principal component analysis (PCA) of body measurements and body indices in the Pasundan cows. Black Sea Journal of Agriculture, 3(1), 49–55.

    Putra, W. P. B., Hilmawan, F. & Johar, A. (2020b). Characterization in two Indonesian Bos indicus cattle breeds based on morphometrical measurements. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research, 4(1), 29–32.

    Said, S., Putra, W. P. B., Anwar, S., Agung, P. P. & Yuhani, H. (2017). Phenotypic, morphometric characterization and population structure of Pasundan cattle at West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 18(4), 1638–1645. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d180443.

    Shah, W. A., Ahmad, N., Javed, K., Saadullah, M., Babar, M. E., Pasha, T. N., Ahmad, S., Nasrullah, A. A., Farooq, M. Z. & Saleem, A. H. (2018). Multivariate analysis of Cholistani cattle in Punjab Pakistan. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 28(3), 940–944.

    Teweldemedhn, M. W. (2018). Characterization of productive and reproductive performances, morphometric and challenges and opportunities of indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia: A review. International Journal of Livestock Production, 9(3), 29–41. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2017.0426.

    Tolenkhomba, T. C., Konsam, D. S., Singh, N. S., Prava, M., Singh, Y. D., Ali, M. A. & Motina, E. (2012). Factor analysis of body measurements of local cows of Manipur. International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 2(2): 77–82.

    Tolenkhomba, T. C., Anal, W., Singh, N. S., Chaudhury, J. K. & Mayengbam, P. (2021). Principal component analysis of body measurements of Zobawng bulls: A local hill cattle of Mizoram, India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 9(1), 2022–2026.

    Verma, D., Varun, S., Sanjeet, K. & Yash, P. T. (2015). Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body conformation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India. Veterinary World, 8(12), 1453–1457. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2015.1453-1457.

    Yakubu, A., Idahor, K. O., Haruna, H. S., Wheto, M. & Amusan, S. (2010). Multivariate analysis of phenotypic differentiation in Bunaji and Sokoto Gudali cattle. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 96(2), 75–80. https://doi.org/10.2487/v10014-010-0018-9.

    Yakubu, A., Ogah, D. M. & Idahor, K. O. (2009). Principal component analysis of the morphostructural indices of White Fullani cattle. Trakia Journal of Science, 7(2), 67–73.