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Juraj Szakács
Ľubica Chrastinová
Mária Chrenková


The manuscript describes the technique for duodenal cannulation of beef cattle using our modification of the standardized closed T-cannula (manufactured by Bar Diamond, Inc., USA). This technique is utilized to determine intestinal digestibility (mobile bag) and, in combination with rumen cannula, also the total digestibility of experimental feeds using the method in situ. We describe the main principles of pre-operative preparation of the experimental animals as well as post-operative care, in order to ensure problem-free and long-term utilization of the animals in experiments. We offer a brief overview of the development of surgical techniques and methods used to determine feed digestibility. Development of these methods is clearly progressing towards minimal invasiveness for the experimental animals. Russel's principle of 3 Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement), and expanded by Tannenbaum and Bennet in 2015, is today applied not only due to the progressively stricter European legislative, which the Member States are obligated to implement into their regulations, but from the practical standpoint as well (Russell, 1959). These methods allow saving labour and material costs and the time. The aim of this study was to describe standard protocol for intestinal cannulation of ruminants.

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