Main Article Content
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of including Zymomonas mobilis-treated sawdust (ZTSD) as unconventional feed in broiler chicken diets for 56 days by observing the haematology, serum metabolites, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation. A total of 375, 1-day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 5 groups, each with 5 replicates of 15 birds each in a Completely Randomized Design for the study. Five diets containing untreated and treated sawdust were formulated to replace wheat offal at 0, 50 and 100 % at starter and finisher phases. At the starting phase, the broiler chickens, fed 100 % untreated sawdust-based diet (UTSD), had highest (p < 0.05) values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) and lymphocytes. Whereas the birds, fed 100 % Zymomonas mobilis-treated based diet (ZTSD), had the highest value for white blood cell (WBC). The finishing broiler chickens, fed 50 % UTSD, had the highest values for total protein (TP), albumin, globulin and uric acid, while the birds on 50 % ZTSD had the least values for TP and albumin. The birds, fed 50 % ZTSD, had highest (p < 0.05) value for liver, while the highest value of the whole gastrointestinal tract was observed at the group with 100 % ZTSD. The control group had the highest value for the overall acceptability of the meat. In conclusion, the inclusion of ZTSD improved PCV, Hb, RBC, TP and blood glucose. ZTSD, given at 50 %, increased the breast, thigh, drumstick and back of the broiler chickens. The application 100 % UTSD and 100 % ZTSD increased the sensory attributes of the meat.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Abdulraheem, A. O., Abubakar, A. & Yahaya, U. K. (2006). Influence of rice bran on growth performance of broiler chickens. FCET JOVATEB, 1(1), 87−92.
Abe, H. A., Kimura, T. & Yamuchi, K. (1996). Effect of collagen on the toughness of meat from spent laying hens. Journal of Food Science Technology, 43, 831−834.
Adedire, A. O., Oduguwa, O. O., Edema, M. O., Onifade, O. S. & Onwuka, C. F. I. (2012). Performance and nutrient utilization of rabbits fed diets based on crop residues fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. Nigeria Journal of Animal Production, 39(1), 114−121.
Aderemi, F. A. (2004). Effects of replacement of wheat bran with cassava root sievate supplemented or unsupplemented with enzyme on the haematology and serum biochemistry of pullet chicks. Tropical Journal of Animal Science, 7, 147−153.
Adeyemi, O. A., Fashina, O. E. & Balogun, M. O. (2000). Utilization of full-fat Jatropha seed in Broiler Diet: Effect on Haematological Parameters and Blood Chemistry. In Proceedings of 25th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society Animal Production (NSAP), 19th - 23rd March 2000, Umudike, pp. 108−109.
Aduku, A. O. (1993). Tropical Feedstuff-Analysis Table. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria, pp. 196.
Afolabi, K. D., Akinsoyinu, A. O., Abdullah, A. R. O., Olajide, R. & Akinleye, S. B. (2011). Haematological Parameters of the Nigerian Local Grower Chickens Fed varying Dietary levels of Palm kernel cake. Poljoprivreda, 17(1), 74−78.
Agboola, A. F., Ajayi, H. I., Ogunbode, S. M., Majolagbe, O. H., Adenekan, O. O., Oguntuyo, C. T. & Opaleye, R. O. (2013). Serum Biochemistry and Haematological indices of broiler Chickens fed graded levels of Frog (Rana esculata) meal as replacement to fish meal. International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences, 2(5), 260−265.
Aletor, V. A. & Egberongbe, O. (1992). Feeding differently processed Soyabean. Part 2. An assessment of haematological responses in chicken diet. Nahrung, 36(4), 364−369.
Alhassan, W. S. (1985). The Potential of Agro-industrial by-products and Crop Residues for Sheep and Goat Production in Nigeria. Proceedings of Small Ruminant Production in Nigeria, 1, 165−175.
American Metabolic Testing Laboratories, Inc. Chemistry Profile. (2001). www.caprofile.net/t3.html.
Anigbogu, N. M. & Anosike, J. C. (2010). Zymomonas mobilis degraded and sweetened sawdust (life-enzyme) cake as feed for the goats. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 27(1), 50−55.
Anigbogu, N. M., Ibe, S. N., Akomas, S. C., Oke, U. K. & Ezeokoli, C. D. (2008). Growth and carcass characteristics of Bororo Zebu cattle fed Water Hyacinth containing diets. Indian Journal of Dairy Sciences, 61(5), 365−368.
Anigbogu, N. M., Ibe, S. N., Anosike, J. C. & Assam, E. M. (2009). The effect of Life-Enzyme (Sawdust treated with Zymomonas mobilis) on the performance characteristics of Red Sokoto Goats. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment, 11(1), 12−18.
Anon (1980). Guide to the care and use of experimental animals. Vol. 1. Canadian Council on Animal Care. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, pp. 85–90.
Association of Official and Analytical Chemists. (2015). Official Methods of Analysis. Arlington, USA.
Awosanya, B., Joseph, J. R., Apata, D. F. & Agbola, M. A. (1990). Performance, blood chemistry and carcass quality attributes of rabbit fed raw and processed Pueraria seed meal. Tropical Journal of Animal Science, 2(2), 89−96.
Babatunde, G. M. & Pond, W. G. (1987). Nutritive value of Nigerian rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) 1 − Rubber seed meal. Nutrition Report International, 36, 617−630.
Babatunde, G. M., Pond, W. O., Krook, L., Van Vleck, L. D., Walker, E. F. & Chapman, P. (1967). Effect of dietary safflower oil or hydrogenated coconut oil on growth rate and on some blood and tissue components of pigs fed a fat-free diets. Journal of Nutrition, 92, 293−302.
Banks, W. J. (1974). Histology & Comparative organology. A Text-Atlas. The Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, USA, pp.79−83.
Baron, D. N. (1973). A short textbook of chemical Pathology. 3rd Ed. The English Language Book Society (ELBS), pp. 15−20.
Benerjee, G. C. (2004). A Textbook of Animal Husbandry. 8th Ed. Oxford and IBH Pub. Co., PVT., LTD.
Bounous, D. L. & Stedman, N. L. (2000). Normal Avian Haematology: Chicken and Turkey. In Feldman, B. F., Zinkl, J. G. and N. C. Jain, Lippin Cotts, Williams and Wilkisin, Philadelphia, pp. 1147−1154.
Breidenstein, B. C. & Carpenter, Z. L. (1983). The Red Meat Industry: Product And Consumerism. Journal of Animal Science, 57(2), 119−132.
Brown, J. A. & Clime, T. R. (1972). Nutrition and Haematological values. Journal of Animal Science, 35, 211−218.
Café, M. B., Rinaldi, F. P., Morais, H. R., Nascimento, M. R., Mundim, A. V. & Marchini, C. F. P. (2012). Biochemical blood parameters of broilers at different ages under thermoneutral environment. World Poultry Conference, Salvador-Bahia-Brazil, 5−9 August, 2012. World Poultry Science Journal, Suppl. 1, pp. 143−146.
Cannan, R. K. (1958). Text Book of Clinical Practical Biochemistry, Volume I, 5th Edition, CBS Publisher and Distributor, pp. 497−480.
Cazetta, M. L., Celligoi, M. A. P. C., Buzato, J. B. & Scarmino, I. S. (2007). Fermentation of molasses by Zymomonas mobilis: Effects of temperature and sugar concentration on ethanol production. Bioresource Technology, 98, 2824−2828.
Chesson, A., Stewart, C. S. & Wallace, R. J. (1983). Influence of plant phenolic acds on the growth and cellulytic of rumen bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 44, 597−603.
Church, J. P., Judd, J. T., Young, C. W., Kebay, J. L. & Kim, W. W. (1984). Relationships among diet constituents and specific serum clinical components of subjects eating self-selected diets. Africa Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 40, 1338−1344.
Daniel, W. W. (1995). Biostatistics: A Foundation for Health Sciences, 5th Edition. Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Deatherage, F. E. (1963). The effects of water and inorganic salts on tenderness. In Proceedings Meat Tenderness Symposium, Campbell Soup Co., Camden N.J., pp. 45−68.
Ekpenyong, T. E. & Biobaku, W. O. (1986). Growth response of rabbits fed activated sewage sludge and dried poultry waste. Journal of Applied Rabbit Research, 9(1), 14−16.
Fajimi, A. O., Babatunde, G. M., Ogunlana, F. F. & Oyejide, A. (1993). Comparative Utilization of Rubber Seed Oil and palm oil by broilers in a humid tropical environment. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 43, 177−188.
Faniyi, F. O. (2006). Optimizing the usefulness of poultry faeces and crop residues for meat, fish and egg production. Inaugural lecture at the Oyo State College of Education, Oyo State, Nigeria, pp. 1−30.
Fasuyi, A. O. & Aletor, V. A. (2005). Protein replacement value of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) in broiler starter: Effect on performance, muscle growth, haematology and serum metabolites. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4(5), 339−349.
Fisher, C. B. & Boorman, K. N. (1986). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry and Nutritional Research. Butterworths, London, United Kingdom.
Gohl, I. B. (1981). Tropical Feeds. FAO, Rome, 532 pp.
Grueling, H. T. (1966). The chemical analysis of plant tissue. Mimeo, No. 6622. Agronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Gunasekaran, P. & Chandra, R. K. (1999). Ethanol Fermentation Technology − Zymomonas mobilis. Current Science, 77(1), 56−68.
Ichita, A. N. (2006). Effects of two nitrogenous sources on Zymomonas mobilis life-enzyme production from cassava peel as sheep feed. Unpublished project submitted to the College of Animal Science and Animal Health in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Bachelor of Agriculture Degree. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.
Igba-Shah, S. & Miller, E. O. (1983). Feeding crop residue and animal waste to ruminants in Pakistan. In Proceedings FAO/Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) workshop on least cost ration formulation. Islamabad, Pakistan, pp. 4−24.
Islam, M. S., Lucky, N. S., Islam, M. R., Ahad, A., Das, B. R., Rahman, M. M. & Siddivi, M. S. I. (2004). Haematological parameters of Fayoumi, Assil and local chickens reared in Sylhet Region in Bangladesh. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4(10), 748−756.
Iyayi, E. A. & Tewe, O. O. (1998). Serum Total Protein, Urea and Creatinine Levels as indices of Quality of cassava Diets for Pigs. Tropical Veterinarian, 16, 59−67.
Jain, N. C. (1993). Essentials of Veterinary Haematology, 4th Edition. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, U.S.A.
Jain, N. C. (1986). Schalm's Veterinary Haematology. 4th Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
Kaneko, J. J. (1997). Serum Proteins and the Dysproteinemias. In Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th Edition., Editors: Kaneko, J. J. Harvey and M. Bruss, Academic Press, San Diego, C. A., pp. 117−138.
Lamidi, A. W., Fanimo, A. O., Eruvbetine, D. & Biobaku, W. O. (2008). Effect of Graded levels of Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Meer) crush waste on the performance, carcass yield and blood parameters of broiler chickens. Nigeria Journal of Animal Production, 35(1), 40−47.
Lewis, G. E., Sanches, W. K., Treacher, R., Pritchard, G. T. & Feng, P. (1996). Effect of direct fed fibrolytic enzymes on digestion of a forage-based diet fed to steers. Journal of Animal Science, 8, 273−276.
Lindsay, D. B. (1977). The effect of feeding patterns and sampling on blood parameters. British Journal of Nutrition, 56, 99−120.
Longe, O. G. & Ogedengbe, N. E. E, (1989). Influence of fibre on metabolizable energy of diet and performance of growing pullets in the tropics. British Poultry Science, 30, 193−205.
Marieb, E. M. & Hoehn, K. (2007). Anatomy and Physiology. 4th Edition. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 649 pp.
Mitruka, H. M. & Rawnsley, S. K. (1977). Chemical, Biochemical and Haematological Reference in Normal Experimental Animals. Mason, N.Y., pp. 287−380.
Mmereole, F. U. C. (2008). The effects of replacing groundnut cake with rubber seed meal on the haematological and serological indices of broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7(6), 622−624.
Muhammad, N. O. & Oloyede, O. B. (2009). Haematological parameters of Broiler chicks fed Aspergillus Niger fermented Terminalia catappa seed Meal-Based Diet. Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 4(2), 179−183.
Nworgu, F. C. (2004). Utilization of forage meal supplements in broiler production. PhD Thesis. Animal Science Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 136−160.
Nworgu, F. C., Ogungbenro, S. A. & Solsi, K. S. (2007). Performance and some blood chemistry indices of broiler chickens served fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) leaves extract supplement. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 2(1), 90−98.
Obikaonu, H. O., Okoli, I. C., Opera, M. N., Okoro, V. M. O., Ogbuewu, I. P., Etuk, E. B. & Udedibie, A. B. I. (2012). Haematological and serum biochemical indices of starter broilers fed leaf neem (Azadirachta indica). Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(1), 71−79.
Odeh, M. O., Igwebuike, J. U., Ubosi, C. O. & Akwukwaegbu, S. O. (2016). Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Cost Benefit Analysis of Broiler chickens fed graded Levels of Rice Milling Waste. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 6(19), 126−132.
Ogunwole, O. A., Oso, Y. A. A., Omotoso, R. R., Majekodunmi, B. C., Ayinde, B. O. & Oikeh, I. (2013). Performance, carcass characteristics and meat physico-chemical properties of broiler chickens fed graded levels of supplemental ascorbic acid. Agricultural and Biological Journal of North America, 4(4), 485−495.
Oke, D. B. & Oke, M. O. (2007). Effects of feeding Grade Levels of Sawdust obtained from Daniellia ogea Tree on the performance and carcass characteristics of Broiler chickens. Research Journal of Poultry Sciences, 1(1), 12−15.
Oleforuh-Okoleh, V. U., Chukwu, G. C. & Adeolu, A. I. (2015). Effect of ground ginger and garlic on the growth performance, carcass quality and economics of production of broiler chickens. Global Journal of Bio-science and Biotechnology, 3(3), 225−229.
Olomu, J. M. (1995). Monogastric Animal Nutrition, Principles and Practices. AJACHEM Publishers, Benin City, Nigeria, pp. 108−214.
Olorode, B. R. & Longe, O. G. (2000). Effect of replacing palm kernel cake with shear butter cake on quality characteristics, haematology and serum chemistry of laying hens. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 27, 19−23.
Olorode, B. R., Onifade, A. A., Opara, A. O. & Babatunde, G.M. (1996). Growth, nutrient retention, haematology and serum chemistry of fed shea butter or palm kernel cake in the humid tropics. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 10, 173−180.
Omojola, A. B. & Adesehinwa, A. O. K. (2007). Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens fed Diets supplemented with graded levels of RoxazymeG®. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6(5), 335−339.
Onyejekwe, I. E. (2010). Effect of direct-fed microbes (Zymomonas mobilis Treated Rice Hull) on Maradi Goats. Thesis submitted to the College of Animal Science and Animal production. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
Onyeyilli, P. A., Iwuoha, C. L. & Akinniyi, J. A. (1998). Chronic toxicity study of Fiscus platyphylla blume in rats. West African Journal Pharmacology Drug Research, 14, 27−30.
Onyimonyi, A. E., Chukwuma, P. C. & Igbokwe C. (2012). Growth and hypocholesterolemic properties of dry garlic powder (Allium sativura) on broilers. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(11), 2666−2671.
Owens, C. M., Cain Cavitt, L. & Meullenet, J. C. (2004). Tenderness Evaluation in Poultry meat. Proceedings of the 57th American Meat Science Association Reciprocal Meat Conference, June 20-23, Lexington, Kentucky, pp. 115−121.
Oyebimpe, K. (2012). Utilization of Enzyme-supplemented cassava root meal as replacement for maize in diets for broiler chickens and cockerels. PhD Thesis, Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Oyewale, J. O. (1987). Haematological and Plasma biochemical values of two breeds of domestic fowl in a tropical environment. Animal Technology, 38, 49−53.
Pampori, Z. A. & Iqbal, S. (2007). Haematology, Serum Chemistry and Electrocardiographic Evaluation in Native Chicken of Kashmir. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6(8), 578−582.
Pigden, W. J. & Bender, F. (1975). Utilization of lignocelluloses by ruminants. Ruminant Nutrition: selected articles from World Animal Review, FAO, Rome, pp. 30−32.
Pippen, E. L., Mecchi, E. P. & Nonak, M. (1969). Origin and nature of aroma in fat of cooked poultry. Journal of Food Science, 34, 436−446.
Ouali, A. (1990). Meat Tenderization: Possible Causes and Mechanisms. A review. Journal of Muscles Foods, 1(2), 129−165.
Reddy, N. R. & Salunkhe, D. K. (1984). Phytates in Legumes and Cereals – reviews. Advanced Food Research, 28, 1−8.
Riddell, C. (2011). Comparative Anatomy, Histology and Physiology of the Chicken. Department of Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskachewan, Canada S7N OWO, p. 37.
SAS Institute, (2001). SAS users Guide Statistics. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Schalm, O. W., Jain, N. C. & Qureshi, M. Q. (1975). Veterinary Haematology, 3rd Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadephia.
Seo, J. S., Chong, H., Park, H. S., Yoon, K. O., Jung, C., Kim, J. J., Hong, J. H., Kim, H., Kim, J. H., Kil, J. I., Park, C. J., Oh, S. J., Kim, J. Y., Kang, H. L., Lee, S. Y., Lee, K.J. & Kang, H. S. (2005). The genome sequence of ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4. Nature Biotechnology, 23(1), 63−68.
Smulders, F. J., Vanloack, M. R. & Ellelenboom, G. (1991). In The European Meat Industry in the 1999's. Ed. F. J. M. Smulders. Audet Nijmogen, pp. 121−129.
Sobayo, R. A., Adeyemi, O. A., Oso, A. O., Fafiolu, A. O., Daramola, J. O., Sodipe, G., Ogunade, I. B. & Odetola, O. M. (2013). Haematological, Serum and Carcass characteristics of broiler chicken fed graded levels of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) used as phytobiotic. Nigeria Journal of Animal Production, 40(1), 48−56.
Steel, T. G. O. & Torrie, L. H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2nd Edition, Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Thrall, M. A. (2007). Hematologia e Bioquimica Clinica Veterinaria. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Sao Paulo: Roca, 582 pp.
Ugwuene, M. C. (2011). Effect of dietary palm kernel meal for maize on the Haematological and serum chemistry of broiler Turkeys. Nigeria Journal of Animal Science, 13, 93−103.
Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. & Lewis B. A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583−3597.
Yanase, H., Nozaki, K. & Okamoto, K. (2005). Ethanol production from cellulosic materials by genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis. Biotechnology Letters, 27, 259−263.
Zhou, W. T., Fujita, M. & Tammamto, S. (1999). Thermoregulatory responses and blood viscosity in dehydrated heat-exposed broilers (Gallus domesticus). Journal of Thermal Biology, 24(3), 185−192.
Zomrawi, W. B., Abdel Atti, K. H. A., Dousa, B. M. & Mahala, A. G. (2012). The effect of ginger root powder (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on broiler chicks' performance, blood and serum constituents. Online Journal Animal Feed Researches, 2(6), 457−460.