Main Article Content
This study assessed the effects of Irvingia gabonensis kernel powder (IKP) and Ocimum gratissimum leaf powder (OLP) dietary supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. A basal diet divided into four portions, designated diet 1 (the control) and diets 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with 2.5g.kg-1 IKP, OLP and IKP+OLP composite mix 1:1 (IOCM), respectively. Two hundred and forty 1-day broiler chicks were randomly assigned to the four experimental diets (60 birds/diet; 10 birds per/replicate) using a Completely Randomised Design. At the finisher phase, the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the birds fed diets 2 and 4 were better (P < 0.05) than those fed the diets 1 and 3. During the overall period, the body weight gain of birds fed diet 4 was similar to those fed diet 2 but higher than those fed diets 1 and 3, while the feed conversion ratio of birds in diets 2 and 4 was better (P < 0.05) than those fed diets 1 and 3. The slaughtered and dressed weights of the birds fed diets 2 and 4 were significantly (P < 0.05) better than those birds fed the diets 1 and 3. The dressing percentage of the birds fed diets 2 and 4 were higher (P < 0.05) than those fed diet 1. White blood cells, granulocytes and lymphocytes counts were (P < 0.05) higher in birds fed diet 4 compared to those on other diets. Serum cholesterol concentration and meat lipid peroxidation activities were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the birds fed diets 2, 3 and 4 compared to diet 1. The catalase concentration in the birds fed diets 3 and 4 were (P < 0.05) higher than those chickens fed diet 1, while the glutathione peroxidase concentration in the birds fed the diets 2 and 4 were (P < 0.05) higher than those fed diet 1. Glutathione concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in meat from birds fed diets 2, 3 and 4, compared to the birds fed diet 1. The meat cholesterol concentration recorded in the birds fed diet 4 was comparable (P > 0.05) to diets 2 and 3, but lower (P < 0.05) than diet 1. The IKP and IOCM supplementation improved the growth performance of the broiler chickens. The overall health status and meat quality were also improved by the phytogenic supplements in this study.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Aebi, H. (1974). Catalase estimation. In: Bergmeyer HV (Ed.) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Verlag Chemic, New York Academic Press, New York.
Aina, V. O., Sambo, B., Zakari, A., HauwaHaruna, M. S., Umar, H., Akinboboye, R. M., & Mohammed, A. (2012). Determination of Nutritional and Anti-nutrient content of Vitis vinifera (Grapes) grown in Bomo (Area C) Zaria, Nigeria. Advanced Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4, 445−448.
Akpabio, U. & Offiong, E. A. (2014). Heamatological parameters and factors affecting their values. Agricultural Science, 2(Suppl 1), 37−47.
Alipour, F., Hassanabadi, A., Golian, A. & Nassiri-Moghaddam, H. (2015). Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance. Poultry Science, 94(11), 2630−2634.
Allain, C. C., Poon, L. S., Chan, C. S. G., Richmond, W. & Fu, P. C. (1974). Enzyamatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry, 20(Suppl 4), 470−475.
Ayodele, S. O., Oloruntola, O. D. & Agbede, J. O. (2016). Effect of diet containing Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal on performance and digestibility of Weaner rabbits. World Rabbit Science, 24, 201−206.
Barreto, M. S. R., Menten, J. F. M., Racanicci, A. M. C., Pereira, P. W. Z., Rizzo, P. V. (2008). Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 10(Suppl 2), 109−115.
Bekhit, A. E. A., Hopkins, D. L., Fahri, F. T. & Ponnampalam, E .N. (2013). Oxidative processes in muscle systems and fresh meat: Sources, markers, and remedies. Comprehensive Review of Food Science and Food Safety, 12, 565−597. http://12: doi:10.1111/1541-4337.12027
Bellosta, S., Ferri, N., Bernini, F., Poaletti, R. & Corsini, A. (2000). Non-lipid effects of statins. Annal of Medicine, 32, 164–176.
Biswas, A., Ahmed, M., Bharti, B. K. & Singh, S. B. (2011). Effect of antioxidants on physio-biochemical and hematological parameters in broiler chickens at high altitude. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 24(Suppl 2), 246−249.
Bohm, B. A., & Kocipai-Abyazan. C. (1994). Flavonoids and condensed tannin from leaves of Hawaiian Vaccinium vaticulatum and V. calycinium (Ericaceae). Pacific Science, 48, 458−463.
Botsoglou, N. A., Fletouris, D. J., Papageorgiou, G. E., Vassilopoulos, V. N., Mantis, A. J. & Trakatellis, A. (1994). Rapid, sensitive, and specific thiobarbituric acid method for measuring lipid peroxidation in animal tissue, food, and feedstuff samples. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 42, 1931−1937.
Brenes, A. & Roura, E. (2010). Essential oils in poultry nutrition: Main effect and modes of action. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 158, 1−14.
Brewer, M. S. (2011). Natural antioxidants: sources, compounds, mechanisms of action, and potential applications. Comprehensive Review of Food Science and Food Safety, 10, 221−247.
Brunner, J. H. (1984). Direct spectrophotometer determination of saponin. Analytical Chemistry, 34, 1314−1326.
Cichoski, A. J., Rotta, R. B., Scheuermann, G., Cunha Junior, A. & Barin, J. S. (2012). Investigation of glutathione peroxidase activity in chicken meat under different experimental conditions. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 32(Suppl 3), 661−667.
Descalzo, A. M. & Sancho, A. M. (2008). A review of natural antioxidants and their effects on oxidative status, odor and quality of fresh beef produced in Argentina. Meat Science, 79, 423−436.
Devi, S. M., Park, J. W. & Kim, I. H. (2015). Effect of plant extracts on growth performance and insulin-like growth factor 1 secretion in growing pigs. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 44, 355−360.
Dhama, K., Tiwari, R., Khan, R. U., Chakraborty, S., Gopi, M., Karthik, K., Saminathan, M., Desingu, P. & Sunkara, L. T. (2014). Growth promoters and novel feed additives improving poultry production and health, bioactive principles, and beneficial applications: the trends and advances: a review. International Journal of Pharmacology, 10, 129−159.
Dhama, K., Latheef, S. K., Mani, S., Samad, H. A., Karthik, K., Tiwari, R., Khan, R. U., Alagawany, M., Faraq, M. R., Alam, G. M., Laudadio, V. & Tufarelli, V. (2015). Multiple beneficial applications and modes of action of herbs in poultry health and production − A review. International Journal of Pharmacology, 11, 152−176.
Dibaji, S. M., Seidavi, A., Asadpour, L. & Mareira da Silva, F. (2014). Effect of a symbiotic on the intestinal microflora of chickens. Journal of Appllied Poultry Research, 23, 1−6.
Domínguez-Vara, I. A., Mondragón-Ancelmo, J., Ronquillo, M. G., Salazar-García, F., Bórquez-Gastelum, J. L. & Aragón-Martínez, A. (2009). Los β-agonistas adrenérgicos como modificadores metabólicos y su efecto en la producción, calidad e inocuidad de la carne de bovinos y ovinos: una revisión. Ciencia Ergo Sum, 16(3), 278−284.
Frankič, T., Voljč, M., Salobir, J. & Rezar, V. (2009). Use of herbs and spices and their extracts in animal nutrition. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 94, 95−102.
Ganguly, S. (2013). Herbal and plant-derived natural products as growth-promoting nutritional supplements for poultry birds: a review. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation, 2, 12−13.
Goliomytis, M., Tsoureki, D., Simitzis, P. E., Charismiadou, M. A., Hager-Theodorides, A. L. & Deligeorgis, S. G. (2014). The effects of quercetin dietary supplementation on broiler growth performance, meat quality, and oxidative stability. Poultry Science, 93, 1957−1962.
Gonzalez, R. M. & Angeles, H. J. C. (2017). Antibiotic and synthetic growth promoters in animal diets: review of impact and analytical methods. Food Control, 72, 255−267.
González-Ríos, H., Dávila-Ramírez, J. L., Peña-Ramos, E. A., Valenzuela-Melendres, M., Zamorano-García, L., Islava-Lagarda, T. Y. & Valenzuela-Grijalva, N. V. (2016). Dietary supplementation of ferulic acid to steers under commercial feedlot feeding conditions improves meat quality and shelf life. Animal Feed Science and Techology, 222, 111−121.
Gorewit, R. C. (1983). Pituitary and thyroid hormone responses of heifers after ferulic acid administration. Journal of Dairy Science, 66, 624−629.
Gou, F. C., Williams, B. A., Kwakkel, R. P., Li, Z. P., Lou, J. Y., Li, W. K. & Verstegen, M. W. A. (2004). Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides as alternatives for an antibiotic, on the cecal microbial ecosystem in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 83, 175−182.
Goyal, A. K. & Brahma, B. K. (2014). Antioxidant and nutraceutical potential of bamboo: An overview. International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 3, 2−10.
Gyamfi, M. A., Yonamine, M. & Aaniya, Y. (1999). Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: thonningia sanguine on experimentally induced liver injuries. General Pharmacolology, 32, 661−667.
Hadwan, M. & Khabt, H. (2018). Simple spectrophotometric method for analysis of serum catalase activity. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 12(Suppl 9), 13−16.
Halliwell, B. & Gutteridge, J. M. C. (1998). Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Hashemi, S. R. & Davoodi, H. (2010). Phytogenics as new class of feed additive in poultry industry. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9, 2295−9304.
Igbinosa, O. O., Igbinosa, E. O. & Aiyegoro, O. A. (2009). Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of stem bark extract from Jatropha curcas (Linn). African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacolology, 3, 58−62.
Ignat, I., Volf, I. & Popa, V. I. (2013). Analytical Methods of Phenolic Compounds. In: Ramawat K., Mérillon J. M.,
editors. Natural Products. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Kabir, O. A., Olukayode, O., Chidi, E. O., Christopher, C. I. & Kehinde, A. F. (2005). Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in SouthWest Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 5, 1−7.
Kanduri, A. B., Munde, V. K., Khan, M. A., Thakur, P. N., Saxena, M. J., Ravikanth, K., Thakur, A. & Maini, S. (2013). Study on the comparative efficacy of natural growth promoter (AV/AGP/10) with antibiotic supplements on overall growth performance and intestinal micrometry of broiler birds. British Microbiology Resarch Journal, 3, 623−634.
Kawada, M., Hirosawa, R., Yanai, T., Masegi, T. & Ueda, K. (1994). Cardiac lesions in broilers which died without clinical signs. Avian Patholology, 23, 503−511.
Khan, T. A. & Zafar, F. (2005). Haematological Study in Response to Varying Doses of Estrogen in Broiler Chicken. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4(Suppl 10), 748−751.
Kumar, S. & Pandey, A. K. (2013). Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 1−16. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/162750
Kumar, Y., Yadav, D. N., Ahmad, T. & Narsaiah, K. (2015). Recent trends in the use of natural antioxidants for meat and meat products. Comprehensive Review of Food Science Food and Safety, 14, 796−812.
Lillehoj, H., Liu, Y., Calsamiglia, S., Miyakawa, M. E. F., Chi, F., Cravens, R. L., Oh, S. & Gay, C. G. (2018). Phytochemicals as antibiotic alternatives to promote growth and enhance host health. Veterinary Research, 49, 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-018-0562-6
Marchi, S., Giorgi, C., Suski, J. M., Agnoletto, C., Bononi, A., Bonora, M., De Marchi, E., Missiroli, S., Patergnani, S., Poletti, F., Rimessi, A., Duszynski, J., Wieckowski, M. R. & Pinton, P. (2012). Mitochondria-ROS crosstalk in the control of cell death and ageing. Journal of Signal Transduction, 2012, 4, 329635. http://doi:10.1155/2012/329635
Mgbemena, M. M., Ilechukwu, I., Okwunodolu, F. U., Chukwurah, J. O. & Lucky, I. B. (2019). Chemical composition, proximate and phytochemical analysis of Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia qombolu peels, seed coat, leaves, and seeds. Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry, 30(Suppl 1), 65−69.
Mishra, A., Kumar, S. & Pandey, A. K. (2013). Scientific validation of the medicinal efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia. The Scientific World Journal, 11−12, 292934. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/292934
Misra, H. P. & Fridovich, I. (1972). The univalent reduction of oxygen by flavins and quinines. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 247(1), 188−192.
Negi, P. S. (2012). Plant extracts for the control of bacterial growth: efficacy, stability and safety issues for food application. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 156, 7−17.
Noohi, N., Borahimipour, G., Rohamin, M., Talebi, M. & Pourshae, M. R. (2014). Phenotypic characteristics and probiotic potentials of Lactibacillus spp. isolated from poultry. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 7(9), e17824.
NRC. (1994). Nutrient requirements of poultry (9th Revised Ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Oakley, B. B., Lillehoj, H. S., Kogut, M. H., Kim, W. K., Maurer, J. J., Pedroso, A., Lee, M. D., Collett, S. R., Johnson, T. J. & Cox, N. A. (2014). The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. FEMS Microbiology Letter, 360, 100−112.
OJEU. (2003). Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003 of European Parliament and the Council of 22 September 2003 on additives for use in animal nutrition. Official Journal of the European Union, Page L268/36 in OJEU. Brussels: OJEU.
Olkowski, A. A., Wojnarowicz, C., Nain, S., Ling, B., Alcorn, J. M. & Laarveld, B. (2007). A study on pathogenesis of sudden death syndrome in broiler chickens. Research in Veterinary Science, 85, 131−140.
Oloruntola, O. D., Ayodele, S. O., Agbede, J. O., Oloruntola, D. A., Ogunsipe, M. H. & Omoniyi, I. S. (2016). Effect of Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal and enzyme supplementation on growth, haematological, immunostimulatory and serum biochemical response of rabbits. Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences, 5(2), 190−195.
Oloruntola, O. D., Agbede, J. O., Ayodele, S. O. & Oloruntola, D. A. (2018a). Neem, pawpaw, and bamboo leaf meal dietary supplementation in broiler chickens: Effect on performance and health status. Journal of Food Biochemistry, e12723. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12723
Oloruntola, O. D., Agbede, J. O., Ayodele, S. O., Adeyeye, S. A. & Agbede, J. O. (2018b). Performance, haemato-biochemical indices and antioxidant status of growing rabbits fed on diets supplemented with Mucuna pruriens leaf meal. World Rabbit Science, 26, 277−285.
Oloruntola, O. D., Agbede, J. O., Ayodele, S. O., Ayedun, E. S., Daramola, O. T. & Oloruntola, D. A. (2018c). Gliricidia leaf meal and multi-enzyme in rabbits diet: effect on performance, blood indices, serum metabolites and antioxidant status. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 60, 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-0182-2
Oloruntola, O. D., Ayodele, S. O., Adeyeye, S. A., Jimoh, A. O., Oloruntola, D. A. & Omoniyi, S. I. (2020). Pawpaw leaf and seed meals composite mix dietary supplementation: effects on broiler chicken's performance, caecum microflora, and blood analysis. Agroforestry Systems, 94, 555−564.
Prabhu, K. S., Lobo, R., Shirwaikar, A. A. & Shirwaikar, A. (2009). Ocimum gratissimum: A review of its chemical, pharmacological and ethnomedicinal properties. The Open Complementary Medical Journal, 1, 1−15.
Rabelo, M., Souza, E. P., Soares, P. M., Miranda, A. V., Matos, F. J., & Criddle, D. N (2003). Antinociceptive properties of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Labiatae) in mice. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 36, 521−524.
Rotruck, J. T., Pope, A. L., Ganther, H. E., Hafeman, D. G. & Hoekstra, W. G. (1973). Selenium: Biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science, 179, 588−590. https://doi.org/10.1126/ science.179.4073.588
Seidavi, A. & Simoes, J. (2015). Evaluation of dietary fish oil plus green tea supplementation on the gizzard, ileum and cecum microflora in broiler chickens. Archivos de Zootecnia, 64, 397−402.
Shastry, G. A. (1983). Veterinary Clinical Pathology (2nd ed.). New Delhi, India: CBS Publishers and Distributors.
Surai, P. F. (2014). Polyphenol compounds in the chicken/animal diet: from the past to the future. Journal of Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 98, 19−31. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12070
Valenzuela-Grijalva, N. V., Pinelli-Saavedra, A. P., Muhlia-Almazan, A., Dominguez-Diaz, D. & Gonzalez-Rios, H. (2017). Dietary inclusion effects of phytochemicals as growth promoters in animal production. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 59, 8, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-017-0133-9
Vaughan, C. J., Gotto, A. M., & Basson, C. T. (2000). The evolving role of strains in the management of atherosclerosis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 35(1), 1−10.
Velasco, V. & Williams, P. (2011). Improving meat quality through natural antioxidants. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 71, 313−322.
Walker, P., Rhubart-Berg, P., McKenzie, S., Kelling, K. & Lawrence, R. S. (2005). Public health implications of meat production and consumption. Public Health Nutrition, 8, 348−356.
Young, I. S., Woodside, J. V. (2001). Antioxidants in health and disease. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 54(Suppl 3), 176−186.
Zulkifli, I., Iman Rahayu, H. S., Alimon, A. R., Vidyadaran, M. K. & Babjee, S. A. (2009). Gut microflora and intestinal morphology of commercial broiler chickens and red jungle fowl fed diets containing palm kernel meal. Archiv fur Geflugelkunde, 73(1), 49−55.