Main Article Content

Shahram Shirmohammadi
Akbar Taghizadeh
Khosrow Parsaeimehr
Monireh Darehzereshkipoor
Neda Divari


The main purpose of this study was to investigate some critical factors affecting the reproduction process and causing the post-pregnancy problems in Holstein dairy cattle herd. One of the critical factors of concerns for herd managers in industrial dairy farms is timed calving, which can result in a greater profit. To achieve this, timed insemination should be done and the post-partum diseases should be controlled as much as possible so that the subsequent pregnancy would not be delayed. Therefore, this study evaluated the reproduction process in one of the largest industrial dairy farms in Yazd province, Iran. A group of 373 cows was monitored since 2005 to 2014. The obtained results indicated that out of the total number of calving, natural calving had the highest number while the dystocia had the lowest. The rate of post-pregnancy problems was raised by the birth of male calves. It was also observed that as the numbers of parity increased, the rate of natural calving increased considerably, whereas the rate of uterine infection decreased. Nevertheless, the ovarian cyst incidence was increased slightly up to the third parity, while it was decreased after the third calving.

Article Details



Atashi, H., & Asaadi, A. (2019). Association between gestation length and lactation performance, lactation curve, calf birth weight and dystocia in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. Animal Reproduction, 16(4), 846−852.

Brotherstone, S., Banos, G., & Coffey, M. (2002). Evaluation of yield traits for the development of a UK fertility index for dairy cattle. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, August 19-23, Montpellier, France.
Correa, M., Erb, H., & Scarlett, J. (1993). Path analysis for seven postpartum disorders of Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 76(5), 1305−1312.

Dechow, C. D., Rogers, G., Klei, L., Lawlor, T., & VanRaden, P. (2004). Body condition scores and dairy form evaluations as indicators of days open in US Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(10), 3534−3541.

Dematawewa, C., & Berger, P. (1998). Genetic and phenotypic parameters for 305-day yield, fertility, and survival in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 81(10), 2700−2709.

Erb, H., Smith, R., Oltenacu, P., Guard, C., Hillman, R., Powers, P., Smith, M., & White, M. (1985). Path model of reproductive disorders and performance, milk fever, mastitis, milk yield, and culling in Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 68(12), 3337−3349.

Faraji-Arough, H., Aslaminejad, A., & Farhangfar, H. (2011). Estimation of genetic parameters and trends for age at first calving and calving interval in Iranian Holstein cows. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, 7(1), 79−87.

Ferguson, J. D. (2005). Nutrition and reproduction in dairy herds. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, 21(2), 325−347.

Gröhn, Y., & Rajala-Schultz, P. (2000). Epidemiology of reproductive performance in dairy cows. Animal Reproduction Science, 60, 605−614.

Hammoud, M., El-Zarkouny, S., & Oudah, E. (2010). Effect of sire, age at first calving, season and year of calving and parity on reproductive performance of Friesian cows under semiarid conditions in Egypt. Archiva Zootechnica, 13(1), 60.

Hansen, L. B. (2000). Consequences of selection for milk yield from a geneticist's viewpoint. Journal of Dairy Science, 83(5), 1145−1150.

Hare, E., Norman, H., & Wright, J. (2006). Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(1), 365−370.

Lucy, M. (2000). Regulation of ovarian follicular growth by somatotropin and insulin-like growth factors in cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 83(7), 1635−1647.

Lucy, M. (2001). Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: where will it end? Journal of Dairy Science, 84(6), 1277−1293.

McAllister, A., Vesely, J., Batra, T., Lee, A., Lin, C., Roy, G., Wauthy, J., Winter, K., & McClelland, L. (1990). Genetic changes in protein, milk, and fat yields as a response to selection for protein yield in a closed population of Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 73(6), 1593−1602.

Noakes, D., Parkinson, T., & England, G. (2009). Dystocia and other disorders associated with parturition. Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, 9, 207−305.

Oseni, S., Misztal, I., Tsuruta, S., & Rekaya, R. (2003). Seasonality of days open in US Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 86(11), 3718−3725.

Plate-Church, A. (2002). Determining Optimal Age at First Calving. http://www.crigenetica.com.br/upload/artigos/leite/facilidade_parto_novilhas/determining_optimal_age_at_first_calving.pdf

Royal, M., Flint, A., & Woolliams, J. (2002). Genetic and phenotypic relationships among endocrine and traditional fertility traits and production traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 85(4), 958−967.

Sas. (2009). SAS/STAT 9.2 User's Guide: The FREQ Procedure, (book Excerpt). SAS Institute Incorporated.

Sewalem, A., Kistemaker, G., & Miglior, F. (2010). Relationship between female fertility and production traits in Canadian Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(9), 4427−4434.

Sewalem, A., Miglior, F., Kistemaker, G., Sullivan, P., & Van Doormaal, B. (2008). Relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity in Canadian dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(4), 1660−1668.

Stevenson, M., Williamson, N., & Hardon, D. (1999). The effects of calcium supplementation of dairy cattle after calving on milk, milk fat and protein production, and fertility. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 47(2), 53−60.

Veerkamp, R. (1998). Selection for economic efficiency of dairy cattle using information on live weight and feed intake: a review. Journal of Dairy Science, 81(4), 1109−1119.

Wall, E., Brotherstone, S., Woolliams, J., Banos, G., & Coffey, M. (2003). Genetic evaluation of fertility using direct and correlated traits. Journal of Dairy Science, 86(12), 4093−4102.spermatozoa. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 250, 98–105.