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The main purpose of this study was to investigate some critical factors affecting the reproduction process and causing the post-pregnancy problems in Holstein dairy cattle herd. One of the critical factors of concerns for herd managers in industrial dairy farms is timed calving, which can result in a greater profit. To achieve this, timed insemination should be done and the post-partum diseases should be controlled as much as possible so that the subsequent pregnancy would not be delayed. Therefore, this study evaluated the reproduction process in one of the largest industrial dairy farms in Yazd province, Iran. A group of 373 cows was monitored since 2005 to 2014. The obtained results indicated that out of the total number of calving, natural calving had the highest number while the dystocia had the lowest. The rate of post-pregnancy problems was raised by the birth of male calves. It was also observed that as the numbers of parity increased, the rate of natural calving increased considerably, whereas the rate of uterine infection decreased. Nevertheless, the ovarian cyst incidence was increased slightly up to the third parity, while it was decreased after the third calving.
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