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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in controlling disease-related problems through alternative methods, since the use of chemotherapeutic agents may lead to occurrence of resistant bacteria. This short communication summarizes the current understanding of probiotic use in aquaculture of rainbow trout to prevent pathogenic bacteria, including the definition and mechanism of probiotics action, and describes their application, prospects and difficulties associated with their use in aquaculture. Our contribution to the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture represents isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the intestinal content of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), subsequently potentially used as probiotics in order to improve health status of fish during fish farming. An effective probiotic must comply with criteria which determine its effect. Selection criteria are used to obtain suitable probiotic candidates for aquaculture including antimicrobial susceptibility test, determination of in vitro and in vivo survival conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout, and tolerance to different pH values, bile, temperature and the best growth properties.
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