Main Article Content
Heat stress is one of the most challenging environmental conditions affecting livestock production especially in the tropical regions of the world. The present study was conducted to examine the physiological response and HSP70 secretion in four extensively managed indigenous sheep breeds with little access to shade. Rectal temperature (RT), Skin temperature (ST), Respiration rate (RR) and Heart rate (HR) were taken from 565 adult rams comprising 139 Uda, 88 Yankassa, 221 Balami and 117 West African Dwarf sheep in early morning and midafternoon at the peak of the dry season in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentration was determined by ELISA. At Temperature Humidity Index (THI) > 82 significant differences were observed between the early morning and midafternoon readings in ST in all the breeds, in RT for WAD and Yankassa and RR in Uda and WAD. In the pooled readings there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between Yankassa and other breeds studied in RR. The concentration of HSP70 ranged from 69.17 to 210.71 ng.mL-1 with the highest value recorded for Uda. The investigated breeds differ in their response to heat stress.
Aboul-Naga, A. I. (1987). The role of aldosterone in improving productivity of heat-stressed farm animals with different techniques. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
Alamer, A. & Al-Hozab, A. (2004). Effect of water deprivation and season on feed intake, body weight and thermoregulation in Awassi and Najdi sheep breeds in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environment, 59, 71–84.
Alhidary, I. A., Shini, S., Al Jassim, R. A. M. & Gaughan, J. B. (2012). Physiological response of Australian Merino wethers exposed to high heat load. Journal of Animal Science, 90(1), 212–220.
Agnew, L. L. & Colditz, I. G. (2008). Development of a method of measuring cellular stress in cattle and sheep. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 123, 197–204.
Alexiev, J., Gudev, D., Popova-Ralcheva, S. & Moneva, P. (2004). Thermoregulation in sheep. IV. Effect of heat stress on heart rate dynamics in shorn and inshorn ewes from three breeds. Zhivotnovodni-Nauki, 41(1), 16–21.
Amundson, J. L., Mader, T. L., Rasby, R. J. & Hu, Q. S. (2006). Environmental effects on Pregnancy Rate in Beef Cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 84(12), 3415–3420.
Beckham, J. T. , Mackanos, M. A., Crooke, C., Takahashi, T., O'Connell- Rodwell, C., Contag, C. H. & Jansen, E. D. (2004). Assessment of cellular response to thermal laser injury through bioluminescence imaging of heat shock protein 70. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 79, 76–85.
Butswat, I. S., Mbap, S. T. & Ayibantoye, G. A. (2000). Heat tolerance of sheep in Bauchi, Nigeria. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 77(4), 265–268.
Castanheira, M., Parva, S. R., Louvandini, H., Landim, A., Fiorvanti, M. C. S., Dallago, B. S., Correa, P. S. & Mcmanus, C. (2010). Use of heat tolerance traits in discriminating between groups of sheep in central Brazil. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42, 1821–1828.
Cao, W., Huang, P., Zhang, L., Wu, H. Z., Zhang, J. & Shi, F. X. (2009). Acute heat stress increases HSP70 expression in the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of adult male mice. National Journal of Andrology, 15(3), 200–206.
Cronje, P. B. (2007). Gut health, osmoregulation and resilience to heat stress in poultry. In: Proceeding of the 19th Australian Poultry Science Symposium, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 12 – 14 February 2007, p. 9–13.
Dikmen, S. & Hansen, P. J. (2009). Is Temperature-Humidity Index the best indicator of heat stress in lactating dairy cows in a subtropical environment. Journal of Dairy Science, 92(1), 109-116.
Doklandy, K., Moseley, P. L. & Ma, T. Y. (2006). Physiologically relevant increase in temperature causes an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability. American Journal of Physiology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 290, G204–212.
Fadare, A. O., Peters, S. O., Yakubu, A., Sonibare, A. O., Adeleke, M. A., Ozoje, M. O. & Imumorin, I. G. (2012). Physiological and haematological indices suggest superior heat tolerance of white-coloured West African Dwarf sheep in the hot humid tropics. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45, 157–165.
Gagnon, D., Lemire, B. B., Casa, D. J. & Kenny, G. P. (2010). Cold-Water Immersion and the Treatment of Hyperthermia: Using 38.6 °C as a Safe Rectal Temperature Cooling Limit. Journal of Athletic Training, 45(5), 439-444.
Gebremedhin, K. G., Hillman, P. E., Lee, C. N., Collier, R. J., Willard, S. T., Arthington, J. E. & Brown Brandl, T. M. (2008). Sweating rates of dairy cows and beef heifers in hot conditions. Transactions ASABE, 51, 2167–2178.
Guerriero, J. R. V. & Raynes, A. D. (1990). Synthesis of heat shock proteins in lymphocytes from livestock. Journal of Animal Science, 68, 2779–2783.
Hales, J. R. S. & Brown, G. D. (1974). Net energetic and thermoregulatory efficiency during panting in the sheep. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 49A, 413–422.
Helmuth, B. & Hofmann, G. E. (2001). Microhabitats, thermal heterogeneity and physiological gradients of stress in the rocky intertidal zone. Biological Bulletin, 201, 374–384.
Hoffmann, A. A., Sorensen, J. G. & Loeschcke, V. (2003). Adaptation of Drosophila to temperature extremes: bringing together quantitative and molecular approaches. Journal of Thermal Biology, 28, 175–216.
Kijas, J. W., Townley, D., Dalrymple, B. P., Heaton, M. P. & Maddox, J. F. (2009). A Genome Wide Survey of SNP Variation Reveals the Genetic Structure of Sheep Breeds. Plos One, 4(3), e4668.
Kristensen, T. N. & Løvendahl, P. (2006). Physiological responses to heat stress and their potential use as indicators of reduced animal welfare in Jersey calves. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 52, 681–689.
Kumar, V. (2005). Effect of thermal stress management on nutritional, physiological and behavioural responses of buffalo heifers. PhD. Thesis. Deemed University, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar.
Lallo, C. H. O., Paul, I. & Bourne, G. (2012). Thermoregulation and performance of British Anglo-Nubian and Saanen goats reared in an intensive system in Trinidad. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44(3), 491–496.
Lambert, G. P. (2009). Stress-induced gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction and its inflammatory effects. Journal of Animal Science, 87(E. Suppl.), E101–E108.
LCI (1970). Patterns of transit losses. Livestock Conservation Inc., Omaha, NE.
Liu, Y. X., Li, D. Q., Cui, Q. W., Shi, H. X. & Wang, G. L. (2010). Analysis of HSP70 mRNA level and association between linked microsatellite loci and heat tolerance traits in dairy cows. Hereditas (Beijing), 32(9), 935–941.
Marai, I. F. M., Bahgat, L. B., Shalaby, T. H. & Abdel-Hafez, M. A. (2007a). Fattening performance, some behavioral traits and physiological reactions of male lambs fed concentrates mixture alone with or without natural clay, under hot summer of Egypt. Journal of Annals of Arid Zone, 39, 449–460.
Marai, I. F. M., El-Darawany, A. A., Fadiel, A., Abdel & Hafez, M. A. M. (2007b). Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep: A review. Small Ruminant Research, 71, 1–12.
McManus, C., Paluda, G. R., Louvandini, H., Gugel, R., Sasaki, L. C. B. & Paiva, S. R. (2009). Heat tolerance in Brazilian sheep: Physiological and blood parameters. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41, 95–101.
NAQVI, S. M. K. & SEJIAN, V. (2010). Physiological adaptation of sheep to hot environmental conditions with special references to climate change. In: Climate change and stress management: sheep and goat production: 1st Ed, Hakyawar D.B, Naqvi S.M.K, Tripathi BN, eds): Satish, Delhi, pp: 259–282.
Parsell, D. A. & Lindquist, S. (1993). The function of heat-shock proteins in stress tolerance: degradation and reactivation of damaged proteins. Annual Review of Genetics, 27, 437–496.
Pedrosa, S., Uzun, M., Arranz, J. J., Gutierrez-Gill, B. & Primitivo, F. S. (2005). Evidence of three maternal lineages in near eastern sheep supporting multiple domestication events. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 272: 2211–2217.
Romero, R. D., Pardo, A. M., Montaldo, H. H., Rodríguez, A. D. & Hernández-Cerón, J. (2013). Differences in body temperature, cell viability, and HSP-70 concentrations between Pelibuey and Suffolk sheep under heat stress. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45(8), 1691–1696.
SAS (2008). Statistical Analysis System SAS Stat Version 9.0. SAS Institute Inc, Cary.
Shapiro, Y., Alkan, M., Epstein, Y., Newman, F. & Magazanik, A. (1986). Increase in rat intestinal permeability to endotoxin during hyperthermia. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 55, 410–412.
Silanikove, N. (1992). Effects of water scarcity and hot environment on appetite and digestion in ruminants: A review. Livestock Production Science, 30, 175–193.
Silanikove, N. (2000). Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livestock Production Science, 67, 1–18.
Sorte, C. J. B & Hoffman, G. E. (2005). Thermotolerance and heat shock protein expression in Northeastern Pacific Nucella species with different biogeographical ranges. Marine Biology, 149, 985–993.
Sorensen, J. G., Kristensen, T. N. & Loeschcke, V. (2003). The evolutionary and ecological role of heat shock proteins. Ecology Letters, 6, 1025–1037.
Tomanek, L. & Sanford, E. (2003). Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as a biochemical stress indicator: an experimental field test in two congeneric intertidal gastropods (Genus: Tegula). Biology Bulletin, 205, 276–284.
Xiao, C., Chen, S., Li, J., Hai, T., Lu, Q., Sun, E., Wang, R., Tanguay, R. M. & Wu, T. (2002). Association of HSP70 and genotoxic damage in lymphocytes of workers exposed to coke-oven emission. Cell Stress Chaperones, 7(4), 396–402.